Thursday, March 19, 2020

Mosquitoes Through History

Mosquitoes Through History No man or beast has caused more human deaths than the dreaded mosquito. Scientists estimate that malaria alone has killed about one half of all the humans who have ever lived on Earth. With the diseases these vectors transmit including dengue, encephalitis and yellow fever, the mosquito is responsible for millions of deaths every year. It is no surprise that the World Health Organization declared these pests as "public health enemy number one." Because of the lethal potential the mosquito possesses, its influence in the course of history cannot be ignored. From the time of the early civilizations to the time of the two world wars, and until now when medical technology is improving in leaps and bounds, the mosquito remains a formidable enemy, becoming even deadlier in time.However, its integration in our history is not limited to its effects to human society; human history itself is at the root of mosquito's lethality.Plasmodium sporozoite traverses the cytoplasm of a...Scientists the orize that prior to the development of human villages, mosquitoes were much less of a threat to humans than in later periods. Aside from the relatively small number that interact with humans before contact with more concentrated settlements, the disease parasites they carried were less potent, and early humans had greater resistance to these parasites. However, at around the same time humans adopted a more settled way of life, conditions were ripe for a mosquito population boom. In time, the diseases they carried evolved, at a more rapid rate than our resistance to them. Because mosquitoes were biologically more resilient than humans, and because their great numbers favored natural selection, the mosquitoes have eluded our attempts to lessen their population or develop a definitive cure for their diseases. As humans improved insecticides, mosquitoes enhanced their resistance; as new medications for diseases were developed, the viruses...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Significant Inventors of the Industrial Revolution

Significant Inventors of the Industrial Revolution The inventions and innovations of the Industrial Revolution transformed the U.S. and Great Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries. Tremendous gains in science and technology helped Britain become the worlds dominant economic and political power, while in the U.S. it fueled a young nations westward expansion and built vast fortunes.   A Revolution Twice Over British innovations harnessed the power of water, steam, and coal, helping the U.K. dominate the global textile market of the mid-1770s. Other advancements made in chemistry, manufacturing, and transportation allowed the nation to expand and fund its empire around the globe. The American Industrial Revolution began after the Civil War as the U.S. rebuilt its infrastructure. New forms of transportation such as the steamboat  and the railroad helped the nation expand trade. Meanwhile, innovations such as the modern assembly line and electric light bulb revolutionized both business  and personal life. Transportation Water had long been used to power simple machines such as grain mills and textile spinners, but Scottish inventor James Watts refinements to the steam engine in 1775 launched the revolution in earnest. Up until that point, such engines were crude, inefficient, and unreliable. Watts first engines were used primarily to pump water and air into and out of mines. With the development of more powerful, efficient engines which would operate under higher pressure and increased output, came newer, better forms of transportation.  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Robert Fulton  was an engineer  and  inventor who had become fascinated with Watts engine while living in France at the turn of the 19th century. After several years of experimenting in Paris, he returned to the U.S. and launched the Clermont in 1807 on the Hudson River in New York. It was the first commercially viable steamboat line in the nation.  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Ã¢â‚¬â€¹ As the nations rivers began opening to navigation, commerce expanded along with the population. Another new form of transportation, the railroad, also relied on steam power to drive the locomotives. First in Britain and then in the U.S., rail lines began appearing in the 1820s. By 1869, the first transcontinental rail line linked the coasts. If the 19th century belonged to steam, the 20th century belonged to the internal combustion engine. American inventor George Brayton, working on earlier innovations, developed the first liquid-fueled internal combustion engine in 1872. During the next two decades, German engineers including Karl Benz and Rudolf Diesel would make further innovations. By the time Henry Ford unveiled his Model T car in 1908, the internal combustion engine was poised to transform not just the nations transportation system but also spur 20th-century industries like petroleum and aviation. Communication As the populations of both the U.K. and the U.S. expanded in the 1800s and Americas boundaries pushed westward, new forms of communication that could cover great distances were invented to keep pace with this growth. One of the first significant inventions was the telegraph, perfected by Samuel Morse. He developed a series of dots and dashes that could be transmitted electrically in 1836; they came to be known as Morse Code, though it wouldnt be until 1844 that the first telegraph service opened, between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. As the rail system expanded in the U.S., the telegraph followed along, literally. Rail depots doubled as telegraph stations, bringing news to the far-flung frontier. Telegraph signals began flowing between the U.S. and the U.K. in 1866 with Cyrus Fields first permanent transatlantic telegraph line. The following decade, Scottish inventor Alexander Graham Bell, working in the U.S. with Thomas Watson, patented the telephone in 1876.   Thomas Edison, who made a number of discoveries and innovations during the 1800s, contributed to the communications revolution by inventing the phonograph in 1876. The device used paper cylinders coated with wax to record sound. Records were first made of metal and later shellac. In Italy, Enrico Marconi made his first successful radio wave transmission in 1895, paving the way for the  radio to be invented in the next century. Industry In 1794, the American industrialist Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This device mechanized the process of removing seeds from cotton, something that had previously been done largely by hand. But what made Whitneys invention particularly special was its use of interchangeable parts. If one part broke, it could be easily replaced by another inexpensive, mass-produced copy. This made processing cotton cheaper, in turn creating new markets and wealth. Although he did not invent the sewing machine, Elias Howes refinements and patent in 1844 perfected the device. Working with Isaac Singer, Howe marketed the device to manufacturers and later consumers. The machine allowed for the mass production of clothing, expanding the nations textile industry. It also made housework easier and allowed the growing middle class to indulge in hobbies like fashion. But factory work- and home life- still were dependent upon sunlight and lamplight. It wasnt until electricity began being harnessed for commercial purposes that industry truly was revolutionized. Thomas Edisons invention of the electric light bulb in 1879 became the means by which large factories could be illuminated, extending shifts and increasing manufacturing output. It also spurred the creation of the nations electrical grid, into which the many inventions of the 20th century from TVs to PCs would eventually plug. Person Invention Date James Watt First reliable steam engine 1775 Eli Whitney Cotton ginInterchangeable parts for muskets 17931798 Robert Fulton Regular steamboat service on the Hudson River 1807 Samuel F.B. Morse Telegraph 1836 Elias Howe Sewing machine 1844 Isaac Singer Improves and markets Howe's sewing machine 1851 Cyrus Field Transatlantic cable 1866 Alexander Graham Bell Telephone 1876 Thomas Edison PhonographIncandescent light bulb 18771879 Nikola Tesla Induction electric motor 1888 Rudolf Diesel Diesel engine 1892 Orville and Wilbur Wright First airplane 1903 Henry Ford Model T FordLarge-scale moving assembly line 19081913

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Critical Review of Contemporary NPD Issues Essay

Critical Review of Contemporary NPD Issues - Essay Example Both the research findings acknowledge that the scale of a company’s operations is irrelevant to the chances of favorable outcomes related to the application of innovation, as Laforet (2011) suggests that the innovative capabilities of small and medium enterprises are comparable to that of large organizations. Another finding asserts that ideation has paradoxical managerial impacts by presenting both negative and positive consequences of the said process in organizations. The scale of the company however, does impact the choices it makes related to innovation, for example, why would a business wish to expand its ideation and innovation capabilities in the first place? Certainly as represented by the findings of the articles which are assessed, it can be noted that large organizations in comparison with small and medium enterprises realize the need to create a strategic fit between their resource capacities and assets as a comprehension of their ideation capabilities is directl y related to the distribution of resources which ultimately allows the formulation of an idea into an innovation. On the other hand, the objectives of a small or medium sized business in engaging in new product development maybe entirely associated with its objective of seeking success or to achieve short-term gain. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the competing ideologies of how New Product Development and Innovation should take place and how it actually takes place, which is either by entirely basing the framework of innovation at an organization upon the components of the ideation process or by engaging in an innovative practice by implementing system wide innovation procedures. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the managerial implications of the articles’ findings by determining the variables and factors that are dependent upon the success of measures such as NPD, process improvement and ideation potential. Factors affecting innovation: Acc ording to Bjork et al. (2010) the foundation of innovation is idea generation or ideation which is dependent upon the level of creativity and inventiveness of the employees and groups within an organization. Once this principle is recognized by the management, it should try to develop channels through which employees can successfully voice their ideas, such channels can range from technology centered pathways or the utilization of teams that should range across functional departments of an organization. Cooper (2008) favors computer-based ideation techniques such as webpages which can allow external parties to supply ideas related to new products, such facilities are readily used by organizations such as Procter and Gamble which are at the forefront of an ideation revolution. Procter and Gamble’s Connect and Develop ideation model is an example of an open system that invites and welcomes idea stimulation from a range of contributors. Laforet (2011) presents a more traditional and conventional view of the factors that may influence innovation, this

Sunday, February 2, 2020

The Skeletal System Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Skeletal System - Assignment Example The appendicular skeleton, on the other hand, as the name implies, consists of the appendages, which include the upper limbs and the lower limbs. The upper limbs include the humerus, the radius and ulna, and the carpals and metacarpals. The lower limbs include the femur, the tibia, the fibula, the tarsals, and the metatarsals. Other components of the appendicular skeleton include the shoulder girdles, consisting of the scapulae and the collar bones, or clavicles, and the pelvic girdle, made up of the coxal or hip bones, which include the ilium, ischium and pubis. The appendicular skeleton functions for helping the various joints of the body perform better and make the body run in a smoother fashion. The appendicular skeleton too functions for movement, locomotion and the performance of any tasks done by the arms, hands, legs and feet (â€Å"Axial and Appendicular Skeleton†). Detailed Functions of the Skeleton The functions of the skeleton include providing support for soft tissues, production of red blood cells, storage of minerals and lipids, and coordination of the muscular system to effect movement and support for the body, in order to carry out the will of the individual concerning any activity that requires physical movements (â€Å"The Skeletal System† 2013). As for support and physical movement, the structure of the bone in the form of a tubular shape with a hard and dense circumference and a hollow center is the one that efficiently and effectively affords maximum support for the body. ... As for support and physical movement, the structure of the bone in the form of a tubular shape with a hard and dense circumference and a hollow center is the one that efficiently and effectively affords maximum support for the body. Moreover, in terms of the protective support that it gives the soft organs, the skull protects the brain; the rib cage and sternum protect the lungs and the heart; and the pelvis and the pelvic girdle provide protection for the reproductive system. In terms of movement, the bones provide anchorage for the muscles. The origin is where the muscle is fixed to a bone, and the insertion is the moving point of attachment. Finally, still in terms of the movement function, bones meet other bones at joints in order to allow varying degrees of movement (â€Å"The Skeletal System – Introduction† 2013). Another function of the skeletal system, particularly the bone marrow, is to carry out hematopoiesis, or the process by which a single type of stem cell gives rise to all types of mature red blood cells in the body. In the adult human being, this is carried out by the bone marrows of the skull, and those of the ribs, sternum, vertebra, pelvis, and the proximal ends of the thigh bones or femurs (Ownby 2002). In terms of the storage of minerals and lipids, the bone is where several metabolically active minerals are stored, especially calcium, which is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Calcium is essential in regulating the intracellular activities of muscle cells and neurons. Moreover, lipids are stored in the yellow marrow of the bone. These lipids are essential in the regulation of body heat, for providing heat, and as a structural component of cell membranes (â€Å"Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure† 2013). 1.3 Structure of Bone Tissue

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Chapter Summary of I Have Lived a Thousand Years, Growing Up in the Holocaust by Livia Bitton-Jackson :: essays research papers

Foreword: Elli Friedmann has returned 50 years later for a ceremony to the spot where she was once liberated by the American army. Living during the Holocaust, she has chosen to give us her story. Chapter 1-The City of My Dreams- Somorja, summer, 1943-March, 1944 Elli talks about daily life in her neighborhood. Her mother does not show any compassion for her. When Elli complains of this, her mother brings up excuses that are unconvincing. Elli believes her mother does not care for her and that her brother is the favorite. Hilter’s reoccurring radio broadcast give nightmares to Elli, whos family is Jewish. The nights when the Hungarian military police would come and stir trouble did not provide anymore comfort for Elli. One night, her brother, Bubi, comes home with news that Germany invaded Budapest, the town where he goes to school. But the next morning, there is no news in the headlines. The father sends him back to school. He learns the next day that a neighbor’s son who goes to school with Bubi has said the same. The day after, the newspapers scream the news of the invasion. Bubi arrives home, and the terror begins. Chapter 2- Hey, Jew Girl, Jew Girl - Somorja, March 25, 1944 Elli’s school has just closed. As she is leaving, a group of boys seem to be having a childish Nazi rally. She runs home and sobs for her normal life back. Chapter 3- The Tale of the Yellow Bicycle- Somorja, March 27, 1944 The â€Å"liquidation† process of the Jews in Elli’s town has begun. Everyone’s prized possessions must be brought to city hall, where they will also be registered. Elli has just gotten a new bike and does not want to give it up. After they come home, her father shows her and the rest of the family a spot where he has buried their most prized possessions. He tells her that he does not know who will survive. He then asks her if she will remember the spot. She yells that she does not want to be the only one to survive, and she does not want to remember. Chapter 4- The Tale of the Yellow Sun- Somorja, March 28, 1944 Every Jew must wear a yellow star and have a painted yellow star on their house. Elli does not leave the house for a week, and cannot believe the horrible things that have begun to surround her. There is an announcement that everyone will be receiving their school report cards and diplomas.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Advanced technology social interactions among young adults

Over the recent years, there has been an advance in technology that has greatly changed the way people interact socially and the way they work. Technological advancement in the communication sector especially has given rise to faster and improved modes of communication.One such mode of communication is the internet or world wide web (www). The Internet is a mode of communication that interconnects different independent networks to turn the world into one big village.This has been made possible through the invention of a new type of computers that have improved speed, high data storage capacity   and are small in size as compared to the older generation computers. They are also user friendly (Daniel J. Myers (2000).Thesis statement The Internet operates through communication software that enable the users to get access to the Internet. These are programs such as Mozillafirefox, Miocrosoft |Internet Explorer, Netscapes Navigator to name but a few. We also have programs that enable th e user to access information about any subject that he/she wishes to explore.Such programs are known as search engines and good examples are www.Google.com and www.yahoo.com. Such programs provide email and internet services. To add the list are Instant Messaging or chatting, blogging, Social Networking Sites and computer games among others.Telephone lines are used to interconnect different computers to enableflow of data or information. Through the   internet, communication has become faster and more reliable and a short text message (sms) is as reliable as a telephone call (Blaise W. Liffick, Ph.D.)Telecommunication sector has also benefited from the introduction of a convenient and fast mode of communication, the mobile phone. As the name suggests, this phone is portable and it ensures one of communication wherever you go as long as the area is covered by a network.Advanced technology has interconnected the computer, mobile phone and radio communication in such a way that a use r is able to listen to the radio online or through their mobile phone.The people who have embraced this kind of change in technology are the youth and this has greatly affected the way the that they interact within society. Improved computer literacy has favored the young people in that majority of them are computer literate and can understand the computer language.The youth for example are the dominant group that will be found at social networking sites. To understand better how advanced technology has affected the life of the young adult generation, we need to explore a bit into the different methods of communication.The mobile phone is the most easily accessible gadget used in modern day communication.   Millions of people worldwide especially the young adults have embraced this mode of communication and majority own mobile phones.A mobile phone has great advantage over a fixed telephone or computer in that it is portable and helps the user take communication wherever he or she goes. Communication has become faster and cheaper through calls or short text messages and people are now closely knit together through this network.Improvements to this service have given rise to radio and email communication through the mobile phone and one can now access the internet of listen to radio through the phone. Mobile phone communication means that information goes with you wherever you are.Through the mobile phone, it has become very easy to keep contact with colleagues such as former schoolmates, parents, friends etc.Everything has its own disadvantages and the mobile phone is no exception. Wrong information can easily be relayed through this mode of communication and lawbreakers have taken advantage of this.Unruly youths have been able to organize criminal activities in a faster and more organized manner making it difficult for the law to get them. The mobile phone has been a source of breakups in relationships as people disagree on phone. Young adults are most pron e to this kind of problem.The internet also known as the web or cyberspace has turned the world into one village by interconnecting and the world can now meet together on the internet.Anyone who can be able to access the internet has access to almost everything they need. Where young people previously referred to libraries and archives for information, they can now collect materials from the internet.  The internet works through a collection of web addresses or www which enable the user to access the internet . This is done through internet service providers who make these web pages accessible to the users. Various computer programs enable the user to carry out different functions over the internet such as chatting,   teleconferencing, blogging and email.The internet has become a source of employment for millions of young people around the world as they are the people working in the fields of networking, programming etc This means that a new social group that was not there befor e is now in existent and in operation. These groups have their own way of interacting and co-existing in their working and also social emvironment.E-mail is a mode of communication on the internet that links together subscribers who have registered on the internet. It allows a subscriber to receive, read, compose and reply mail online. This mode of communication is very popular with the young people as it is a more modern method of letter writing.It beats normal postage in that the reciepent   gets the information immediately. It is cheaper that a telephone call and carrys more information than a text message. The young adults have taken advantage of its convenience to update each other on different issues, to apply for schools and jobs etc.The email makes the distance covered by normal mail shorter, is faster and more reliable. We also have webmail the difference being that with an email you have to work online but with a webmail you work offline and get connected when sending th e information.The email service is now available through the mobile phone and this has made it even cheaper and more convenient as one does not have to visit a cyber room to send or receive an email (Joan Tunstall, J. (1999).Chatting   refers to a mode of communication over the internet in which two or more people in different localities can hold a conversation or discussion online by typing information on the computer.This is a style very popular with the youth as it is same as if people were talking face to face the only difference being that you cannot hear or see each other.Chat rooms created on the web have become meeting places fro many young people and they have also been able to make new friends through this channel. This has given rise to   new kind of social group that   communicates through chat rooms (Daniel J. Myers (2000).Blogging is another type of internet communication that is popular with the young people. This form of online publishing enables the user to ad d new information onto an already existing topic.Blogging is very convenient in that a new user can use an already existing blog to add new contributions to a certain topic. Blogging is very popular with people who wish to market their products as they have a fast means of letting fellow bloggers what’s on the market.The internet provides such programs as Windows Media Player that enables the user to play digital music through the computer e.g CDs, DVDs   and also listen to FM stations. Young people are fun lovers and they are now able to watch movies, listen to music and   radio through the internet.This can be done form the comfort of you living room or even in the office when relaxing. This has affected the mode of interaction amongst the youth in that they now no longer have to visit movie houses to watch movies but can borrow from the library .Download software programs also enable the young people to play various types of games which would otherwise have been un aff ordable in the real situation.Young adults are also able to share ideas through Social Networking Sites (SNSs). Social Network Sites are internet based services that enable people to created their own personal profiles. Examples are Mysapce and Facebook.These profiles can be shared with other persons within a closed environment. Users will be able to interact within the same user group although these sites can also be viewed by non-users. Users are able to upload such items as photos, videos etc.This mode of communication is used to enhance interaction between relationships that were already existing offline. Users of this service are introduced by others already in the service and thus the reason why young people are attracted to SNSs; because their friends are already on these sites.This work to create closed user groups. Social Network Sites grow in popularity among people of a certain country, race, sex or even community. SNSs   like CyWorld and Orkut for example are very popu lar in countries such as Korea, India and Brazil. An SNS will therefore enable a certain community or group to post and share comments as well as enhance friendships.The users are able to express themselves while at the same time interacting with others within an SNS   community. This mode of communication makes interaction easier and faster by reducing distance between the users (Ramy H.N., Moppett S. A (2000).Teleconfrencing is yet another mode if internet communication that has changed the way young adults interact. This refers to holding of meetings through the internet between groups at different geographical locations. Unlike in chatting, the parties involved are able to see and hear each other.Social forums   involving young people as well as academic exchange programs are carried out through teleconferencing.   This means that ideas are exchanged and solutions to various found while avoiding traveling costs.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Innovation and Design Strategy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1491 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/11 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Samsung Electronics: Innovation and Design Strategy Introduction: The case study commences with the integration of innovative design and brand management by Samsung Electronics which started a new trend in the electronics industry. As discussed in the case, initially Samsung was not much popular and lacked design identity but later it relocated itself by: * Improvement in the product development processes * Increasing their investments in RD and product design i. e. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Innovation and Design Strategy" essay for you Create order RD globalization. * By adopting right innovation strategies. By mastering the less tangible, more intuitive qualities of superior design. * By diversification of products and step by step or continual improvement. * Implementing Global localization strategy. * Achieving Vision of leading in digital convergence by using e-processes (electronic integration of processes by going online). All these methods were implemented by Samsung in order to improve its productivity and to gain competitive advantage over its competitors like LG Electronics, Sony, Apple Computer Inc. , etc. Despite this, Samsung is facing the challenge to stay ahead in competition in the near future. Consumer electronics industry is facing a tough competition and the need of the hour is to optimize the R D costs, having relevant information regarding the IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) while design outsourcing and using appropriate product design followed by appropriate market strategy. Case Analysis: As mentioned in the case, the background of Samsung can be discussed in a tabular form: * Started by Byung-Chull Lee in 1939 as an exporter of agricultural products. | * Samsung Electronics established in 1969 followed by product diversification. * Strategic Joint Ventures with NEC, Sanyo and Corning Glass work in 1970| * Brought 50% stake in Korea Semiconductor Inc. | * Acquisition of Korea Semiconductor Inc. in 1978 followed by the successful implementation of reverse engineered product design| * Vertical integration by developing their own IC’s DRAMS(Dynamic Random Access Memories in 1985 | * Focus on qualitative growth than quantitative growth in 1990| * Loosening of import restrictions by South Korean government| And Samsung achieved price competitiveness in 1991. * In 1992, Samsung established RD center in European markets. | * In 1994, Samsung established RD center in US markets. | * In 1997, Samsung cuts its Korean and overseas workforces due to Asian Financial crises. | * In 1999, Samsung was regarded as world’s premiere consumer goods and services industry By Forbes. | * In 2000, Samsung embarked vision to convert itself into a Digital- e company. | * Increased design staff and RD in 2004| In 2005, Samsung increased its design budget by 20%-30%| * In 2006, Samsung registered 17,377 patents worldwide| * In 2007, Samsung held dominant worldwide market share| Samsung Electronics’ integration of brand management, product design and investment in RD provided them advantages over its competitors. Hence, they improved step by step with the product diversification, Mergers and Acquisitions, vertical integration and implementation of new technology. They were aggressively involved in marketing and improving their brand image in the minds of their customers. The Samsung’s learning and leveraging matrix can be explained as: Dedicated business units e. g. Informal technology transfer | New venture department or division, e. g. †skunkworks( Investments in RD’s)| Independent business unit, e. g. Predivestment or potential spinout| Direct integration or business team ( Vertical Integration by developing their own IC’s)| Low Leveraging existing competencies High Innovation and product Design at Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics leading position was contributed by the enlisted factors: * Creative people in the organization which contributed in the development of technology. * Co-operation between the business partners throughout the supply chain * Firms ability in exploring end penetrating into the new markets * Speed of innovation and product development. Along with this Samsung also increased the investments in their RD centers. After doing the trend analysis for the Exhibit 3 which shows the Samsung RD budget and percentage sales, We arrive at the conclusion that the Samsung’s RD budget increased till the year 2007 linearly. But there is decline in the percentage of sales in the year 2007, which suggests that the Samsung will need to rethink this strategy. There is an urgent need to optimize the cost related to Samsung’s RD expenditure to prevent the decline of sales in future. Samsung globalized their RD network worldwide to develop technologies which can be commercialized in the future. Basically the main idea behind the globalization of RD network is to: * Focus on innovation and generating new products for global market. There is a huge scope of product improvement. * This provides an access to the emerging markets. * Leverages the market opportunity for the firm. User- Centric Design Philosophy Samsung’s philosophy was to strike the balance between the reasons and feelings. This was done by them with the rationalization of the design of product by using geometric and technological par ameters and enhancing the design to the product so that it can make the emotional connection with the user. Their global localization strategy helped them to become a top class consumer electronics company. Marketing Samsung used electronic processes to achieve their vision of leading in digital convergence. The Convergence and integration between manufacturing, promotion distribution of electronics included releasing, promoting and marketing. This thing helped Samsung in improving: * Brand Image * Helped in product differentiation * Better value propositions or bundle of benefits to the customers. This graph shows net sales and operating profit of Samsung Electronics 2007 Samsung Electronics’ E-processes comprised of: The SCM, RD management and Customer management processes were integrated with ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). ERP implementation provided them a wider access to the Samsung Electronics’ operations. This improved their overall processes and improved efficiency. Competitive Landscape: Landscape| SamsungElectronics| Apple ComputerInc. | LGElectronics| Nokia Corp. | Sony Corp. | MotorolaInc. | Product Offered| Consumer electronics(LCD TV’s,MicrowaveOvens, PC’s, etc. ) | PC’s, portable music players,Mobile communication devices, etc. | Consumer Electronics( mobile handsets,Front loading washing machines, AC’s, etc. )| Leading Mobile Comm. Company( started as wood pulp producers)| Electronic games,Motion pictures, Financial services, etc. Mobility solutions, mobile services, cellular comm. Devices ,etc. | Innovation DesignMarketing| Focuses on ‘Reason’ and Feeling to create a design and used global localization strategy to establish as a first class consumer electronic company(user centric)Digital convergence using E-Processes and efforts in improvi ng design by investing in RD| Occupies ‘feeling’ zone and emphasis on the simplicity of products in terms of design and usability. Improvement in design and product features| Concentrated on 5 areas:Mobile comm. digital appliances, digital displays,Digital media and home networking and design their products by using 4 values: Theme, style, interface and finishOriginally produced electronics for mass consumption but later transformed to produce premium consumer products for attracting premium customers and to gain brand image| Adopted telecom. as its core business designing was based on 3 principles: Simplicity,Relevance and ExperienceProduct categorization is done by: ExploreLive classic, classic, achieve and entry and communicating brand value to the customers| Creates value added products by doping 4 principles of design: Originality, Lifestyle, Functionality and UsabilityDo not rely on customer surveys and create value added user experience through feature design, concept development and eco- friendly sustainable design| Focus on two criteria’s for design the products for their consumers: personalization and socializationPaid attention on development of new revenue generating services and technologies and enabling customers to experience media mobility. | Comparison of percentage sales It is clear from the graph that both Nokia and Motorola are ahead than Samsung in terms percentage of net sales. This means that Samsung needs to redesign and reform their business network to gain competitive advantage from its competitors. Moreover in 2007, there is a slight decline in sales for Samsung which is a cause of concern. Though, Samsung is relatively doing well as compared to its competitors Apple, LG and Sony. Conclusion We can analyze the whole case by using Porter’s legacy which deals with innovation strategy. There are five forces to develop a competitive innovation strategy: The five forces are : * Relations with suppliers: It means that Samsung needs to improve their relations with the suppliers. This can be done with Suppliers relationship management and by bringing the suppliers on a single platform. * Relations with buyers: Customer is the king. There is a need to improve their relationships with the buyers or customers by developing appropriate marketing strategy, timely delivery of the products and supply chain management * New entrants: It is important for Samsung to analyze the threats from new entrants in the consumer electronic market. * Substitutes: With the emergence of chinese products in the market which can act as the substitutes for Samsung products . Hence, it is important for Samsung to implement Generic technology strategies which includes: * Cost leadership (e. g. Lower/cheaper material input, logisitics) * Differentiation (e. g. Enhance features, deliverability) * Cost focus (minimum features) * Differentiation (niche markets) * Rivalry among established firms: There is a strong competition between the already existing firms like Nokia, Sony, Apple, LG, etc. Therefore ,Samsung will have to improve its competitiveness in the market. In order to sustain its position in the near future Samsung will have to consider all the above mentioned points.